EYE FACTS

The beauty of a soul is reflected is one’s eyes. However, there is a lot more to eyes than what fills our first glace. Here are some stunning facts about the eye that can enthrall you.

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B-SCAN

B-scan ultrasonography is important for the clinical assessment of various ocular and orbital diseases. Ultrasonography, in conjunction with proper examination technique, helps gather information which is not possible using clinical examination alone.

Indications for Examination

B-scan ultrasound is most useful when direct visualization of intraocular structures is difficult or impossible.

Situations that prevent normal examination include:

  • Lid problems 
  • Severe edema
  • Partial or total tarsorrhaphy
  • Keratoprosthesis
  • Corneal opacities
  • Scars
  • Severe edema
  • Hyphema
  • Hypopyon
  • Miosis
  • Pupillary membranes
  • Dense cataracts
  • Vitreous opacities 
  • Hemorrhage
  • Inflammatory debris

In such cases, diagnostic B-scan ultrasound can accurately image intraocular structures and give valuable information on the status of lens, vitreous, retina, choroid, and sclera.  

However, there are certain instances where ultrasound is used for diagnostic purposes even though pathology is clinically visible. Such instances include:

     
  • Differentiating iris or ciliary body lesions
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  • Ruling out ciliary body detachments
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  • Differentiating intraocular tumors
  • Serous versus Hemorrhagic choroidal detachments
  • Rhegmatogenous versus Exudative retinal detachments
  • Disc nurse versus Papal edema.

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)

Optical Coherence Tomography is a technique for obtaining sub-surface images of translucent or opaque material at resolutions equivalent to a low-power microscope. It is effectively an 'optical ultrasound' used for imaging reflections from within the tissue to provide cross-sectional images.

OCT is steadily gaining popularity in the medical community as it provides tissue morphology imagery at much higher resolutions (more than 10 µm) than other imaging modalities such as MRI or ultrasound.

The key benefits of OCT are:

  • Live sub-surface images at near-microscopic resolution
  • Instant, direct imaging of tissue morphology
  • No preparation of the sample or subject
  • No ionizing radiation

Fundus Fluorescein Angiography (FFA)

Fluorescein Angiography (FA) is a procedural analysis to investigate the cause of retinal disease.

The procedure involves injecting the patient with 3 ml of diluted fluorescent dye. It reaches the retina in a matter of seconds. Sequential photographs of the retina are then taken using a sophisticated digital camera. Abnormal leakage or absence of a normal pattern of dye helps the doctors in understanding the retinal disease. It also provides them a clue on the severity of the disease.

FFA is simple and generally has no side-effects. It is helpful in diagnosing vascular diseases of the retina, especially diabetic retinopathy. The following are the benefits of this test:

  • To detect any lesion(s) in the retina
  • Confirmation of diagnosis for retinal disorder
  • Providing guidelines for the treatment
  • Helping to keep a record of the vessels at the back of the eye

 

Fundus Camera or Retinal Camera

A fundus camera or retinal camera is a specialized low power microscope with an attached camera designed for fundus photography. It is designed to take photographs of the interior surface of the eye, including the retina, optic disc, macula, and posterior pole.

Applications

Fundus cameras are used by optometrists, ophthalmologists and trained medical professionals to monitor the progression of eye diseases and diagnose them. Fundus camera can be combined with retinal angiography or in screening programs, where the photographs taken can be analyzed later.

Laser Indirect Ophthalmoscopy (LIO)

This procedure involves using laser through binocular indirect ophthalmoscope for retinal photocoagulation. It is often used for patients with diabetic retinopathy, venous occlusions, peripheral retinal holes and lattice degenerations and cases with post-vitrectomy. It is a recent addition to the armamentarium in vitreoretinal work.

Main Purpose of LIO

  • Laser treatment of the periphery of the retina
  • Laser in Retinopathy of Pre-maturity (ROP)
  • Laser in OT/ Media Haze

Main Advantages

  • Complete retinal periphery can be visualized and treated
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  • Can be performed on bed rode patients/wheelchair bound patients
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Argon Laser for Diabetic Retinopathy

Argon laser surgery has been used successfully since the year 1970. The procedure uses a laser beam that turns to heat when focused on the retinal parts which have to be treated. The energy produced by the laser is precise, controlled and convenient. The ophthalmologist can control the laser by choosing a wavelength which can be absorbed by the specific eye tissue. The surgeon gets to control the power and time of exposure as well.

This laser surgery is used for diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, retinal breaks, retinal detachment and other retinal abnormalities.  

It may also be used to seal abnormal blood vessels that have leaked serum into the retina. Laser treatment of the macula may be necessary to help preserve central vision. In severe cases of diabetic retinopathy, a major surgical procedure called vitrectomy may also be done to remove long-standing blood from the inner eye and scar tissues to relax the traction on the retina. In this procedure, the vitreous fluid is removed and usually replaced with either saline solution, gas or silicone oil. Also, intravitreal steroids may help reverse vision loss from diabetic retinopathy in patients with swelling/edema of the retina.

PASCAL Laser - the latest in laser technology

Maxivison holds the distinction to be the first eye-care center in the state of Andhra Pradesh to introduce the revolutionary PASCAL laser machine for retinal treatment.

The Pascal laser is a new innovative tool designed to treat retinal conditions like a diabetic and retinal holes and tears. It is different from previously available laser instruments as it has the unique capability to deliver predetermined pattern of multi-precision laser applications in a "single-shot". This allows for quicker and safer application while providing greater comfort to patients.

Pascal laser allows hundreds of precisely positioned laser applications treatments to be accomplished in a matter of minutes.

It is CE & US-FDA approved and can be used to treat the following conditions:

  • Proliferative & Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (PDR, NPDR)
  • Choroidal Neovascularisation (CNVM, SRNVM)
  • Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD, ARMD)
  • Branch & Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (BRVO, CRVO)
  • Lattice degeneration
  • Retinal tear, hole or detachment
  • Iridotomy, Iridectomy for Narrow Angle Glaucoma
  • Laser Trabeculoplasty for both Open and Narrow Angle Glaucoma

Intravitreal Avastin Injection for ARMD / Diabetic

Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the leading cause of blindness in people over 50 years of age. It is caused by the breakdown of a central portion of the retina - the macula, which is responsible for the central vision needed for driving a car, reading the fine print, recognizing faces, etc.  

Avastin Injection

Avastin is injected in the macula to prevent further loss of vision after the pupil is dilated and numbed with anesthesia. Avastin may be needed at intervals of four to six weeks; your doctor can tell how often you will receive the injection and for how long.

Sutureless Vitrectomy

This is one of the latest methods of performing vitrectomy, recently invented and quickly gaining global popularity.

Similar to the developments in Cataract surgery, even Vitrectomy can be done with a "sutureless" approach. This requires the use of special equipment that enables the surgeon to reach the vitreous using cuts that are as small as 0.5 mm. These cuts close by themselves and do not require sutures. Hence, there is no suture-related foreign body sensation or watering. Also, since there is no need to cut the conjunctiva, there is no redness of the eyes and patients recover faster. All this increases the comfort of the patients in the post-operative period who can resume their daily routine at the earliest.

Maxivision is the leading center among the only 5 centers in India where Sutureless Vitrectomy surgeries are being performed regularly. Moreover, we have probably handled the highest number of Sutureless Vitrectomy cases in India since the year 2005.

While the sutureless technique can be used for nearly all types of diseases, there are few conditions that will need conventional Vitrectomy. Your doctor can decide whether to use this technique or not only after doing a thorough examination.

Maxivision Super Speciality Eye Hospitals – Pioneering Innovation in Eye Care